By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service. Physics Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for active researchers, academics and students of physics. It only takes a minute to sign up. I am trying to solve a problem of a ballistic rocket which is fired from the surface of the Earth. I have not worked with spherical coordinates too much, but the problem necessitates them.

However, I struggle to understand how to specify the velocity in terms of spherical coordinates. The best way to understand these different coordinates systems is to picture them exactly as our usual x,y,z system.

So lets say that our position is represented as:.

Types of rubber chemicalsThen the velocity is given by the time derivative of the position vector same as our normal x,y,z system. Sign up to join this community.

The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Home Questions Tags Users Unanswered. Struggling to understand velocity components in spherical coordinates in ballistic trajectory Ask Question. Asked 2 years, 5 months ago. Active 1 year, 2 months ago. Viewed times. I am really struggling how to visualize. Any help is appreciated. Darcy Darcy 5 5 bronze badges. Active Oldest Votes. Daniel Duque Daniel Duque 1 1 silver badge 15 15 bronze badges.

How does that initial velocity relate to the velocity components in spherical coordinates? Sign up or log in Sign up using Google. Sign up using Facebook. Sign up using Email and Password. Post as a guest Name.

Email Required, but never shown. The Overflow Blog. The Overflow How many jobs can be done at home? Socializing with co-workers while social distancing. Featured on Meta. Community and Moderator guidelines for escalating issues via new response….By changing the display options, we can see that the basis vectors are tangent to the corresponding coordinate lines. Spherical coordinates are defined with respect to a set of Cartesian coordinates, and can be converted to and from these coordinates using the atan2 function as follows.

To convert from Cartesian coordinates, we use the same projection and read off the expressions for the spherical coordinates.

If the spherical coordinates change with time then this causes the spherical basis vectors to rotate with the following angular velocity. The rotation of the basis vectors caused by changing coordinates can be directly computed, giving the time derivatives below. This gives:.

Now we evaluate the cross products graphically to obtain the final expressions. Then we can differentiate this expression to obtain:. Taking another derivative gives:. There are many different conventions for spherical coordinates notation, so it's important to check which variant is being used in any document.

The convention used here is common in mathematics. Many different names for the coordinates are also used, with the inclination also being called the zenith anglepolar angleor normal angle. Home Reference Applications. Shortest flight paths.The Cartesian coordinate system provides a straightforward way to describe the location of points in space.

Beethoven 5 symphony youtubeSome surfaces, however, can be difficult to model with equations based on the Cartesian system. This is a familiar problem; recall that in two dimensions, polar coordinates often provide a useful alternative system for describing the location of a point in the plane, particularly in cases involving circles.

In this section, we look at two different ways of describing the location of points in space, both of them based on extensions of polar coordinates.

As the name suggests, cylindrical coordinates are useful for dealing with problems involving cylinders, such as calculating the volume of a round water tank or the amount of oil flowing through a pipe. Similarly, spherical coordinates are useful for dealing with problems involving spheres, such as finding the volume of domed structures.

When we expanded the traditional Cartesian coordinate system from two dimensions to three, we simply added a new axis to model the third dimension. Starting with polar coordinates, we can follow this same process to create a new three-dimensional coordinate system, called the cylindrical coordinate system.

### VELOCITY POTENTIAL FUNCTION AND STREAM FUNCTION

In this way, cylindrical coordinates provide a natural extension of polar coordinates to three dimensions. Notice that these equations are derived from properties of right triangles.

In other words, these surfaces are vertical circular cylinders. Conversion from cylindrical to rectangular coordinates requires a simple application of the equations listed in Note:.

If this process seems familiar, it is with good reason. This is exactly the same process that we followed in Introduction to Parametric Equations and Polar Coordinates to convert from polar coordinates to two-dimensional rectangular coordinates. Use the second set of equations from Note to translate from rectangular to cylindrical coordinates:. In this case, the z -coordinates are the same in both rectangular and cylindrical coordinates:.

The use of cylindrical coordinates is common in fields such as physics. Physicists studying electrical charges and the capacitors used to store these charges have discovered that these systems sometimes have a cylindrical symmetry. These systems have complicated modeling equations in the Cartesian coordinate system, which make them difficult to describe and analyze.

The equations can often be expressed in more simple terms using cylindrical coordinates.

Each trace is a circle. In the Cartesian coordinate system, the location of a point in space is described using an ordered triple in which each coordinate represents a distance.

Foreign nurses in belgiumIn the spherical coordinate system, we again use an ordered triple to describe the location of a point in space. In this case, the triple describes one distance and two angles. Spherical coordinates make it simple to describe a sphere, just as cylindrical coordinates make it easy to describe a cylinder. Grid lines for spherical coordinates are based on angle measures, like those for polar coordinates. These equations are used to convert from spherical coordinates to rectangular coordinates.

These equations are used to convert from rectangular coordinates to spherical coordinates. These equations are used to convert from spherical coordinates to cylindrical coordinates. These equations are used to convert from cylindrical coordinates to spherical coordinates. The formulas to convert from spherical coordinates to rectangular coordinates may seem complex, but they are straightforward applications of trigonometry.

Points on these surfaces are at a fixed distance from the origin and form a sphere. Converting the coordinates first may help to find the location of the point in space more easily. These points form a half-cone Figure.March 31,velocity components in cylindrical coordinates.

## Cylindrical coordinate system

Dear all, good morning. I am simulating the flow within a vaned diffuser which is downstream of a radial impeller. I can also find the velocity components of the absolute velocity in cartesian coordinates. Thanks a bunch. Kind regards, Mattia.

March 31, Join Date: Mar In post, go to the turbo tab. After defining the axis of rotation you can let post calculate the cylindrical components, which then appear as normal variables.

Thank you! It seems working! Kind regards. Thread Tools. BB code is On. Smilies are On. Trackbacks are Off. Pingbacks are On. Refbacks are On. Forum Rules. All times are GMT The time now is Add Thread to del. Recent Entries. Best Entries.By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service.

Mathematics Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for people studying math at any level and professionals in related fields. It only takes a minute to sign up. I haven't been able to find an answer to velocity component transformation from polar to Cartesian on here, so I'm hoping that someone might be able to answer this question for me.

Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Home Questions Tags Users Unanswered. Convert polar velocity components to Cartesian Ask Question. Asked 4 years ago. Active 4 years ago. Viewed 12k times. In the reading, the full quote says "The velocity field is steady solid-body rotation. Wondered why the rotational component was in terms of r as well. Active Oldest Votes.

Paul Sinclair Paul Sinclair I mean U as in the x-component of Cartesian velocity and V as in the y-component. Sign up or log in Sign up using Google. Sign up using Facebook. Sign up using Email and Password. Post as a guest Name. Email Required, but never shown. The Overflow Blog.Recent Updates. Now we will go ahead to understand the basic concept of velocity potential function and stream function, in the field of fluid mechanics, with the help of this post.

Let us consider that V is the resultant velocity of a fluid particle at a point in a flow filed. Let us assume that u, v and w are the components of the resultant velocity V in x, y and z direction respectively. We can define the components of resultant velocity V as a function of space and time as mentioned here. Velocity components in cylindrical polar-coordinates in terms of velocity potential function will be given as mentioned here. We can write here the continuity equation for incompressible steady flow in terms of velocity potential function as mentioned here.

It is defined only for two dimensional flow. Velocity components in cylindrical polar-coordinates in terms of stream function will be given as mentioned here. Let us use the value of u and v in continuity equation; we will have following equation as mentioned here.

Flow might be rotational or irrotational. We will discuss another term i. Do you have any suggestions?

## Divergence

Please write in comment box. Fluid mechanicsBy R. Image Courtesy: Google. Lagrangian and Eulerian method. Kinematic viscosity. Dynamic viscosity.

Lr 308 speed loaderVarious properties of fluid. Type of fluids. Labels: Hydraulic System.A cylindrical coordinate system is a three-dimensional coordinate system that specifies point positions by the distance from a chosen reference axis, the direction from the axis relative to a chosen reference direction, and the distance from a chosen reference plane perpendicular to the axis.

The latter distance is given as a positive or negative number depending on which side of the reference plane faces the point. The origin of the system is the point where all three coordinates can be given as zero. This is the intersection between the reference plane and the axis. The axis is variously called the cylindrical or longitudinal axis, to differentiate it from the polar axiswhich is the ray that lies in the reference plane, starting at the origin and pointing in the reference direction.

Other directions perpendicular to the longitudinal axis are called radial lines. The distance from the axis may be called the radial distance or radiuswhile the angular coordinate is sometimes referred to as the angular position or as the azimuth.

The radius and the azimuth are together called the polar coordinatesas they correspond to a two-dimensional polar coordinate system in the plane through the point, parallel to the reference plane.

The third coordinate may be called the height or altitude if the reference plane is considered horizontallongitudinal position[1] or axial position. Cylindrical coordinates are useful in connection with objects and phenomena that have some rotational symmetry about the longitudinal axis, such as water flow in a straight pipe with round cross-section, heat distribution in a metal cylinderelectromagnetic fields produced by an electric current in a long, straight wire, accretion disks in astronomy, and so on.

They are sometimes called "cylindrical polar coordinates" [3] and "polar cylindrical coordinates", [4] and are sometimes used to specify the position of stars in a galaxy "galactocentric cylindrical polar coordinates".

The notation for cylindrical coordinates is not uniform. In concrete situations, and in many mathematical illustrations, a positive angular coordinate is measured counterclockwise as seen from any point with positive height. The cylindrical coordinate system is one of many three-dimensional coordinate systems. The following formulae may be used to convert between them. For other formulas, see the polar coordinate article. For example, this function is called by atan2 yx in the C programming language, and atan yx in Common Lisp.

In many problems involving cylindrical polar coordinates, it is useful to know the line and volume elements; these are used in integration to solve problems involving paths and volumes.

The surface element in a surface of constant height z a horizontal plane is. The del operator in this system leads to the following expressions for gradientdivergencecurl and Laplacian :. The solutions to the Laplace equation in a system with cylindrical symmetry are called cylindrical harmonics. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Physics of Plasmas. Bibcode : PhPl Archived from the original on 14 April Retrieved 9 February Physical Review Letters.

Bibcode : PhRvL.

### Vector fields in cylindrical and spherical coordinates

Basic Mathematics for Electronic Engineers: models and applications. Tutorial Guides in Electronic Engineering no. Intermediate Fluid Mechanics. Galaxies in the Universe: An Introduction 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press. Orthogonal coordinate systems. Cartesian Polar Parabolic Bipolar Elliptic. Cartesian Cylindrical Spherical Parabolic Paraboloidal Oblate spheroidal Prolate spheroidal Ellipsoidal Elliptic cylindrical Toroidal Bispherical Bipolar cylindrical Conical 6-sphere Flat-ring cyclide coordinates Flat-disk cyclide coordinates Bi-cyclide coordinates Cap-cyclide coordinates Concave bi-sinusoidal single-centered coordinates Concave bi-sinusoidal double-centered coordinates Convex inverted-sinusoidal spherically aligned coordinates Quasi-random-intersection Cartesian coordinates.

Categories : Three-dimensional coordinate systems Orthogonal coordinate systems.

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